Thursday, 28 April 2011

Nawamis Of Sinai










The enigmatic nawamis have been known since Edward H. Palmer's early explorations in the Sinai. During the years 1972 to 1982. Ofcr Bar-Yoscf, Avner Goren. and other Israeli scholars made intensive field investigations of these structures. It is generally agreed lhat these well-preserved stone-built structures were constructed during the 4th millennium b.c. by indige­nous pastoralists and used as tombs at the end of the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze I A. The nawamis gener­ally have the same rounded plan 3 to 6 m in diameter and approximately 2 m in height. They are usually double walled and built of local stone, either sandstone slabs, granitic, or metamorphic boulders. A wide range of burial offerings was found in the nawamis. These include beads (mostly dentalium, connus, carnelian, faience, bone, and ostrich eggshell), mother-of-pearl pendants, lambis-shcll bracelets, transverse arrowheads, tabular scrapers, and some copper points, Bar-Yoscf suggested that the nawamis were used as graves for family units. Both primary and secondary burials were found in the numerous fully excavated nawamis.


On the Nawamis 

Beduins of the Muzzeina Tribe














Big Dune Beach and Musa Camp